Shenzhen, the one-time small fishing village, singled-out by late Chinese paramount leader Deng Xiaoping, the chief designer of Chinese reform and opening, is a so-called one of the Special Economic Zones in China originally established in 1978. Formerly known as 'Bao'an County', it was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by the Guangdong province in November 1979. In May 1980, Shenzhen was formally nominated as a 'Special Economic Zone (SEZ),' the first one of its kind in China. It was given the right of provincial-level economic administration in November 1988.
Shenzhen is located at the forefront of the Pearl River Delta and borders on the New Territories of Hong Kong in the south, Daya Bay in the east, the outlet of Pearl River and Dongguan and Huizhou in the north, being an important coastal communication hub in South China. Covering an area of 2,020 square kilometers, with a population of 7 million, Shenzhen had the highest population density of major cities in China. Shenzhen is a sub-tropical maritime region and its average temperature is 22.4 degrees Centigrade.
Shenzhen is the only city that owns seaports, airport and land ports in China. Its seaports are especially developed. The Shenzhen Port ranks sixth among world container ports. Shenzhen owns Luohu Port, the largest land passenger port in China and Huanggang Port, the largest land freight port. At the same time, Guangshen, Shenshan, Jingjiu and Guangshen expressways link Hong Kong, Shenzhen and inland cities.
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange was established on December 1, 1990. It is one of the two stock exchanges in mainland China (the other is in Shanghai).
Shenzhen is a newly emerging immigrant city. Its culture is different from the traditional culture of other cities. It is the transformation and activation of inland culture and the absorption and fusion of foreign culture oriented toward Hong Kong. Unique geological and cultural environment of Shenzhen has created Shenzhen culture featuring openness, tolerance and innovation.
Apart from commercial development, Shenzhen is also a rising city for tourism. There are more than 50 different scenic spots to visit whilst staying in Shenzhen, mainly including Window of the World, Splendid China, China Folk Culture Villages, Happy Kingdom, Safari Park Shenzhen and Evergreen Resort. Shenzhen won the honor of being entitled an 'International Garden City' at the 'Green Oscars' in November 2000.