About 160 km south of Ji'nan, the capital of Shandong Province, Qufu is a small city with an urban population of about 63,000 (2004). It is the birthplace of Confucius - the greatest Chinese philosopher 2500 years ago. Confucian ethnics were adopted by the subsequent feudal rulers to keep the populace in line, and Confucian temples were set up in numerous towns run by officials. Qufu acquired the status of a holy place, with the direct descendants of Confucius as its guardian angels.
The town of Qufu has three basic attractions: the Temple (built around the house that Confucius grew up in), the "Forest" (the Kong family cemetery where over 100,000 of Confucius' descendants have been buried in the last 2500 years), and the Ming-era mansion compound where the descendants of Confucius lived a nobility.
Every year from September 26 - October 10 "Qufu International Confucius Culture Festival" is sponsored here. During the period, tourists can see and take part in many celebration activities. The Temple of Confucius, Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu, have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1994. They are the major cultural attractions of Qufu.
The temple, cemetery and family mansion of Confucius, the great philosopher, politician and educator of the 6th - 5th centuries B.C., are located at Qufu, in Shandong Province. Built to commemorate him in 478 B.C., the temple has been destroyed and reconstructed over the centuries; today it comprises more than 100 buildings. The cemetery contains Confucius' tomb and the remains of more than 100,000 of his descendants. The small house of the Kong family developed into a gigantic aristocratic residence, of which 152 buildings remain. The Qufu complex of monuments has retained its outstanding artistic and historic character due to the devotion of successive Chinese emperors over more than 2,000 years.
Adopted from: http://whc.unesco.org